Dr. Andrew Palmer has been engaged with pipelines since 1970. His background is in civil engineering and applied mechanics. He was initially at Cambridge University, then at R.J. Brown and Associates, then founder and director of Andrew Palmer and Associates, a company of consulting engineers involved in pipeline projects in every continent, latter as Research Professor of Petroleum at Cambridge University, as a Visiting Professor at Harvard University, and Keppel Chair Professor in the Centre for Offshore Research and Engineering at the National University of Singapore. He has written three books and more than 180 research papers. He has an extensive consulting practice, and expert witness experience.